The market of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like several other industries, has actually transformed substantially over the last few years. Although the standard formulations have actually undertaken small modifications, the manufacturing innovations have changed dramatically (this uses specifically to the approaches of forming tiny products as well as tiles, in addition to their product packaging).
At the beginning of this phase, it seems appropriate to discuss only these modifications, yet more on those later related to details dishes.
Different groups of confectionery products call for particular molding approaches to ensure that they can be covered and packaged in one of the most appropriate means up for sale. Probably the most effective technology was the pastry bar. These bars enable you to make use of cost-efficient techniques of manufacturing, product packaging and screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were obvious renovations in the packaging – both in the products made use of and also in the sealing techniques. The majority of the bars in order to guarantee long life span, to secure against insect damage as well as contamination call for protective packaging. We think about these consider separate chapters.
We have already thought about the manufacturing of delicious chocolate, and also consequently it is clear that delicious chocolate and complicated glazes have a mainly fatty basis, their wetness material is really reduced (typically less than 1%), and the components are not in liquid solution.
In many confectionery procedures, the dissolving capacity of sugar (sucrose) is thought about separately or in combination with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and also invert sugar. There are 2 main groups of sugar confectionery items: a) items in which sugar is totally liquified, as well as b) items in which sugar is partially liquified, as well as partially existing in the form of small strong crystals put on hold in solution. These items may be modified with other ingredients (as an example, milk and also fats). The initial group consists of hard candy, difficult and soft milk desserts, toffee and also most jelly sweets. The second team includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with an obvious fine-crystalline framework.
Review confectionery production technologies
Below we will certainly see that all the range of structures obtained is a result of using different technical processes and also solutions, every one of which call for unique methods for the development of individual products. Right here we take a look at general modern technology issues, as well as see their details uses in other sections of this book.
Smearing and cutting
The equipment is geared up with cooled down rolls, which enable you to feed the item directly from the device, where it is prepared, to the plate forming tools. After molding as well as lamination, home plates are fed to a cooling tool, and then to standard cutting tools and spreaders. After that the items are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is possibly the earliest approach of generating bars (floor tiles) as well as private items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat and also different pastes. A confectionery product in an appropriate plastic state, determined by its dampness, fat material or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the required density. This plate is then fed to reducing tools to produce wide strips, which are after that cut into slim tiles or bars. Presently, the warm product is fed to cooled down rolls, allowing to get multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that go through the (” spreading equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An example of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This technique is utilized for the manufacturing of sweets, fondant as well as jelly candies, some sorts of milk sweets as well as fudge, marshmallows and other items that can be obtained in liquid form.
Some items in fluid type may be molded at a temperature level of regarding 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These items are generally cast right into cells formed in starch (see listed below the area “Fondant shells”). A a lot more current development is the automated precipitation and removal of fondant coverings as well as a few other confectionery products making use of steel molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the precipitation of sugar and toffee right into silicone molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has special residential or commercial properties as well as is immune to fairly heats, typical for the production of sugar confectionery.
This method applies virtually solely to candy caramel as well as some types of toffee. The common flavored sweets, sweets with a filler and also “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing concept is to cool the made syrup under controlled problems till it gets to a pliable state. In this state, the item is changed into a sort of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up items (normally of a certain shape or with a pattern) are gotten from it. The resulting items are promptly sent out to the cooling cabinet as well as wrapping machine.
To obtain some kinds of sugar as well as chewy sweets, a variation of this approach is used, in which the harness obtained in a similar way is fed to a cutting-wrapping device, where with the help of high-speed circular knives, tiny items are reduced from it that concerned the covering machine.
Extrusion and molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, carried out in the production of several non-food products, has been effectively used in the confectionery sector. The application of this procedure to the manufacturing of numerous products– from soft materials such as marshmallows and also fondant sugary foods to extremely plastic nougat as well as milk delicious chocolates– is explained in  In this instance, the product subjected to extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle hole account identifies the shape of the end product, and also numerous extruders are geared up with a variety of nozzles that produce harnesses that can be cut into bars or small items. In fig. 19.2 programs various rolls for extruders, and also fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a system for cutting off tiny pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating periodontal and eating candy.
The style of the NID bar extruder is somewhat different. The feeding is performed by grooved rollers similarly as in various other extruders, however the material to be formed is fed to a second account roller. The profiled surface of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to make certain very easy separation of the product and is utilized to shape benches right into the called for form. The pins aid remove the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery product. Extrusion works well with various other continuous production as well as glazing approaches.
When extrusion confectionery should observe particular preventative measures.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature is of fundamental significance, specifically in the case of milk sweet and also nougat, the uniformity of which is extremely depending on temperature level. Small variations in temperature level can cause large modifications in extrusion pressure. For soft milk sweets, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is normally made use of, but much relies on the kind of product, and also the specific temperature.
Excursion problems must be determined empirically. Low temperatures as well as high pressures trigger knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat divides during extrusion, this is a sign of inadequate emulsification. Improvement is accomplished when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is included in the formula.
Destruction after extrusion … After extrusion, some items shed their form, as well as the strip, which is nearly cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may end up being visibly flatter. This is because of numerous reasons:.
too high a dampness content;.
It was not emulsified fat and also might be too soft;.
the protein of any type of milk component is not properly distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has formed or has been damaged by extreme mixing after crystal development. This issue can be really subtle, and also in continual fudge manufacturing, its appearance relies on the minute the crystallizing lipstick is added prior to extrusion. It is possible to identify the optimum conditions for a certain devices only experimentally. Firms concentrating on the manufacturing of extrusion devices have carried out a huge amount of research study in the layout of machines for the extrusion of confectionery items of different consistencies. For some items – such as gummies and chewing gum tissue – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These modern technologies are explained in various other areas of the book.
The principle of panning is currently described in Chapter 5. There are two types of sugar rolling – difficult and also loose. With tough knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar and syrup are accumulated on the preferred body (for example, nuts) and dried out with cozy air passing away between the used layers. Loosened knurling is executed in a similar method, but using chilly technology. Soft shells are made use of (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling), and the finishing is made of sugar (or sugar) syrup and powdered sugar. After reaching the wanted dimension and weight of the coating, the candies are partly dried as well as covered with polish. The process is fully mechanized, consisting of loading and also discharging the containers, automatic splashing of syrups (or chocolate), and control of drying out or cooling air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and also invert sugar is generally represented in English by the word “creme” (lotion), yet some traditional items make use of the choice “cream”, and in various countries it is called in a different way.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar as well as sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water as well as concentrating by boiling to a solution consisting of concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this remedy is supersaturated with sugar and also unpredictable, as well as if it is rapidly mixed and also cooled down, after that the excess sugar falls out of the solution in the form of small crystals. Hence, the fondant mass has a strong phase of sugar crystals put on hold in a liquid stage including a saturated remedy of “sugars”.
Without mixing and also cooling large crystals are developed. Whipping by itself offers unsatisfactory results, given that a huge amount of latent heat of formation is launched. If the whipped syrup is left hot, crystallization slows down and also subsequent sluggish cooling causes the formation of big crystals. Fondant of top quality should be soft in uniformity.
Initially, lipstick was prepared making use of just sugar, which was liquified in water and also focused by boiling to about the degree of 88-90% ST. Since the solubility of sugar at normal temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is really unsteady as well as crystallizes upon rapid air conditioning, “giving” very large crystals.
To conquer this downside, an additive was utilized that caused the inversion of a part of the sugar and also increased the total solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, a lot more preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are used as such ingredients. The development of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in one more chapter, yet here we just note that such ingredients break down part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its presence with dextrose permits the concentrated syrup to be whipped into a lipstick.
This approach of application of the additive is extremely unstable, given that the quantity of invert sugar formed varies significantly relying on the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and the solidity of the water made use of. Finest results are acquired by including in the sugar syrup a specific amount of invert sugar, ready individually.
Lipstick, made from sugar and also invert sugar, has a granular framework and also is extremely sweet in taste (it is hardly ever utilized in contemporary confectionery production). Sugar (corn) syrup has replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulas; it is less pleasant, and the existence of complex carbohydrates regulates the development of crystals and also gives a more viscous lipstick, which does not have a loosened (crunchy) texture.